1. The following three state-civilizations like the Mayas, the Incas, and the Cahokia were the most vigorous ones in the ancient times. The popularity of these states was due to the involvement of the intellectual capabilities that cannot be understood even nowadays. The Inca settled in the Cuzco Valley, Mesopotamia, along the Andes Mountains in about 1,200 AD. During 1440-1500, they managed to extend their power approximately to 2,500 miles from the north to the south, containing the population of 16 million people (Coovey 811). The civilization of the Mayas was located in Central America or Mesoamerica. The Mayas lived in farming locations on the highlands of the Yucatan Peninsula approximately 2,800 years ago. In 250-900 AD, the Mayas managed to build more than 40 settlements, which populations reached more than 50,000 people (Evans and Webster 424). The Cahokia was the biggest settlement in Northern Native America, which was characterized by the huge amount of the pyramids (Alt 497). In around 1000 AD, the Cahokia population reached 15,000 people.
All the three city-states were organized in a similar way. The cities consisted in towns and villages, which were evident from the found agricultural fields, metal elements, pottery, and other items. The settlements were located majorly not far from the rivers, the source of underground water, and forests, where the ancient people hunted and used wood as building materials. The Incas settlements were located next to the coastline and the vast rivers. The Incas advanced in the series of aqueducts, which were the structures used to expand the arable land as well as support the citizens with drinking water and baths, its major aim was also to protect humans and fields from drains (Coovey 816). The same way, the Cahokia settlements were located on the Mississippi banks (Alt 501). The river was used for the drinking water, as arrogation system, and also as bath. In contrast, the location of the Mayas’ habitations did not allow them to utilize water openly; thus, the only supplies of water were taken from underground rivers and rainfall. Moreover, the Mayas built underground caves or cenotes to gather and reserve precious water.
The building style of the tree civilizations was somehow similar as they built their houses and other buildings as well as monuments of the stone, the forests also allowed them to use the wood in the houses construction. For example, the Incas civilization was focused on the creation of monumental buildings of the ancient time. The major instances were Saksaywaman, Machu Pikchu, and Ollantaytambo (Coovey 819). These monuments and all others, constructed by the Incas, were characterized by simple shapes and forms. The Incas also created their residential houses that formed the shapes of the square or rectangle. Moreover, Incas always made the defensive buildings that served as a protection not only from the enemies but also the natural phenomena as floods or hurricanes. At the same time, being a strongly advanced culture, the Mayas developed the art of building. The Mayas built pyramids and temples, for example, El Mirador (Evans and Webster 427). However, not only the monumental but also the residential architecture was characterized by the ornaments that were used to decorate the buildings. The archeologists found the figures of the domestic and wild animals, which were used for the buildings’ decoration. Thus, the investigators found "E-Group" and the monumental palaces, which had been constructed in the towns. As well as the Incas, the Mayas built with the simple forms. The layout of the Cahokia site was generally divided into two broad portions, where the first portion consisted of the central part of the city or “Downtown Cahokia”, which was dedicated for the elites and governmental buildings (Alt 504). The second portion surrounded the central part round and consisted of residential houses. The most famous monument “Monks Mound” of the Cahokia was located in the central part of the town and was 100-foot (30-meter) tall. The monument and other residences were made of wood and stone and the central part contained the walled with a 2-mile-long wooden palisade that was the city’s defense.
2. The Eastern North America is a subarctic region characterized by the cold, arctic climate. This area came through a lot of various time periods but all of them were without any massive changes and were characterized by having a continuous development in bone tools, and stone leather, textile manufacture, crafting and cultivation. In contrast, the Pacific Northwest is situated in the pacific coast of Washington and British Columbia (Feinman and Price 292). This region is environmentally rich in the natural resources, wood, and sea inhabitants. During all time periods the region was inhibited by the hunters-gathers who hunted the big mammals as deer, bear, fished, gathered berries and roots. The richness of the region allowed the citizens to make the wooden tools, such as canoe, houses and ornaments.
In the early stages, the Eastern North American period was characterized by the seasonal activity as the winter months were too cold for any work. However, during the warm seasons, people hunted the mammals, particularly the ocean mammals and shellfish; they also gathered berries and nuts. The major ration of the North American citizens included the starchy food. In the winter months, people made the pottery items, domestic tools of stone, shells, and hematite. Similar to the Eastern North American region, the Pacific Northwest in its early stage of Holocene was characterized by the increasing interest to the whale hunting that led to the creation of the separate whale-hunting villages and the most popular of them was Ozette, located in the middle of all whales’ migration paths. Along with the whale hunting, the coastal regions during their early development stages were focused on the mammals as deer, elk and harbor seals.
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The Middle stage of development in the Eastern North America brought the development of trade that was proved by the numbers of bazzars found by the archeologists. The traders usually exchanged the commodities, hunted fish and mammals, their skins serving as a building and cloth material. Moreover, the pottery and ornament development also advanced as the archeologists found the vast diversity of domestic pottery items. The new period brought the Pacific regions, the new tools for fishing and hunting and if earlier the hunters used harpoons, then they used the fishhooks made of bones and metal (Feinman and Price 293). However, the citizens continued their whale hunting activity and used all parts of their bodies; for example, bones were used for making tools and ornamenting the houses, skin was used for warming people as well as buildings, meat was a food and the whale fat was used as a warming butter in cold seasons.
The late stage of Woodland period was characterized by the advancing in hunting and introduction of the agricultural deal. The people started growing the maize, squash and beans, the weapon advanced to the arrows and bows. This period was also famous for the population division into the smaller clans leading various lives and working in diverse spheres. The religion emergence was also the trait of that period. In contrast, the Pacific tribes continued to hunt the whales as well as dolphins, fur seal, sea lions, and other (Feinman and Price 295). Quite often, the Pacific tribes traded these fish or exchanged them for other items as agricultural products or building materials. Thus, the societies of both regions were active, but the Eastern North American area was more dynamic as its population managed to advance in its development going from hunting and gathering to plants cultivation. The citizens of the Pacific region suddenly disappeared as a nation which did not allow them to continue advancing. Both regions were continuing in their activity going through the stages to making a more comfortable and easier life.
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