System analysis is a term that refers to the process of decomposing a system into its components. The process aims at identifying the working process of the components as well as the efficiency of the apparatus making the system. In the case of an information system, the analysis involves gathering of information about the people and the computers that play the role of processing and interpreting information (Bagad, 2009). The software used to run computers is a major concern in information technology and accessories. The analysis involves the study of the method how the network hardware and software used by people and other organizations assembles, sorts, processes, generates and transmits data from one place to another.
Analysis of an information system is an activity of great importance in information transmission process. The information obtained from the analysis helps the system managers to estimate the future progress of the system. It offers a gateway for the recommendations on specific renovations required in the whole system. System analysis helps in identifying the requirements of an information system that do not function well (Goodall, Goodall & Schiefelbein, 2010). These conditions include production support, data maintenance, service level requirement and the future performance estimates. The analysis helps in defining the correct criteria to be employed in testing the level of acceptance by the users of the system. The management also understands the expectations of the people using the system analyzed.
System Analysis helps the management to specify the scope of management and the efficiency of their management skills. It helps in defining the requirement management tools and the best management modification for the success of the whole system. The activity is well applicable to identifying the data depot security for an information system. The information gathered helps in identifying the people who should access the information and those who should be kept off from accessing data from an information system (Goodall, Goodall & Schiefelbein, 2010). The analysis also helps in drawing of the entity correlation diagram and the dimension of the data processed by the system.
Analysis of an information system involves the majority of organization’s employees. They are mainly the officials of the organization. A business owner may carry the analysis to provide the input cost of installation and maintenance of the information processing software. He/she acquires information on the financial requirement of the system. Data Steward within a system participates in the process of information analysis to obtain the requirements and modifications that help in improving the quality and the security of the data. The activity involves a data modeler who helps in analyzing the data gathered to estimate the inputs and regulate the ownership of the information originating from the system.
There are five basic approaches to an information system analysis. The activity involves scope definition, problem analysis, requirement analysis, logical design and decision analysis. Through these methods, analysis of an information system is defined as an activity that involves the determination of system requirements and collection of the information about the system. It requires administration and development of interviews and questionnaires within the system. It evaluates the flow of the work as well as the design used in the system. Other activities involved in the analysis include data flow diagramming, analyzing the statistics of the system and the cost analysis. The whole analysis ends up by evaluating and defining the procedure of implementing activities within the system (In Hill & In Langan, 2014).
Scope Definition is a part of the analysis of information system that involves several activities. The analysts take part in activities such as identifying the problems of the system and searching for the available opportunities. Looking for directives is also a significant step at this level of analysis. The respective officials participate in determining the type of data to be obtained and the relevant business activities to be incorporated. They determine how the whole system interacts with the users, the outside environment and other subsequent systems that carry similar activities. The approach involves the assessment of the value of the activities done by the business. The approach incorporates the schedule and the budget plan of the whole information system. In this case, the analysts submit the charter of the project that includes the line of attack, testimonial of work to be accomplished (Johansson, Glenn, & Huge-Brodin, Maria, 2008). The latter also includes the tangible and end products of the system, eminence values, timetable and the whole financial plan of the system.
The problem analysis phase of analyzing an information system involves various activities. The analysis take specializes in the cause and effect analysis activities (Goodall, 2010). It includes a study of the whole problems in the system, as well as determines their cuse and impacts to the of the performance system. The analysts search for deep-rooted causes of a problem, and they have immediate and long-term effects of the progress of the system. A context diagram is a primary concern of this phase. It involves drawing on pictorial models used to describe the level of interaction of the system with the outside world. The system analysis specifies the legal conditions of the system inputs and its results (Tran, 2013).
The requirements analysis phase includes the functional and nonfunctional requirements. Functional requirements refer to a description of all the activities and services that the system should offer to its members and other people (Burke, 2009). They are mainly the inputs, outputs, processes and the stored data of the system. The nonfunctional requirement is a description of other facial appearance, traits and limitations to the achievement of the goals of the system. The requirements also include the criteria that the organization uses to provide feedback to people. It enables the system to acquire people’s idea and opinions on the progress of the system. It facilitates a high level of performance, proper channels for adapting changes, adherence to the set programs and deadlines, proper documentation, security and sufficient control of internal assessment (Wang & Wang, 2012).
Logical design focuses on the changes that take place within the system. It addresses the preferable modifications that the system should adopt to make changes in the performance of the system. It advocates for changes in the management staff, data administration, networking and documentation in the whole system. In this phase, the team validates the relationships and the interactions between objects, as well as generalization of the user crossing point of objects.
Decision analysis phase entails a feasibility study on different aspects of the system (Avison, 1997). It examines whether the staff of the system have the technical expertise required in designing and building a solution to a problem. The system carries operational feasibility to determine whether the solution satisfies the demand of the users. An economic feasibility also helps in determining the cost effective of the solution. The system tests for the time scheduled for the implementation of the solution (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). All these activities help in making a complete and successful information system.
Part 1 (AIS of Costco)
- Discuss how the Holism vs. Reductionism works in Costco Wholesale?
Holism is described as a substitute advance for system thinking while reductionism is an example of a system thinking, which identifies and recognizes working conditions that offer significant support in realizing the interconnection of network systems (Czarniawska-Joerges, 2006). Costco Wholesale applies these two ideologies in carrying its daily activities. The way of doing things in Costco Wholesale reflects the ideas contained in holism and reductionism.
Holism provides an approach that claims the need for understanding a system as a whole to achieve the objectives of the system. Costco wholesale adheres to this plan by acquiring different forms of information systems that make many workers exploit their duties. The wholesale operates under set laws and regulations. Holism and reductionism advocates for the use of rules in the process of learning a system (Tran, 2013). The two ideologies claim that there is the need for system break down into small manageable parts. Costco Wholesale has an information system that is divided into small portions for easier management.
- Planning Regarding Your System
Discuss how Costco Wholesale planned to develop and analyze the business systems in terms of SDLC Planning Regarding your system
Costco adopted the policy of developing and analyzing the business systems in terms of SDLC by the implementation of the use of restricted communication network that provides information concerning the reserve of the company and its daily sales. It has numerous newsletters that provide sufficient information concerning the activities taking place in the company. These newsletters act as reference materials for future decision-making.
- Design and Develop regarding you system in terms of SDLC
Discuss how your organization (Costco Wholesale) developed the system? (Screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams)
Costco wholesale made various modifications to design and develop in terms of system development life cycle (SDLC). The company allocated all the staff members to various fields to facilitate the achievement of development (Burke, Lake & Paine, 2009).
Discuss how your organization (Costco Wholesale) decided to approach developing their system?
Costco made a decision of developing their system through adopting new techniques of gathering and analyzing data concerning the progress of the system. The staff members are assigned to different duties to facilitate proper control and regulation of activities taking place within the organization. System thinking is also a significant feature of this organization that the organization uses to monitor the progress of the information of the system (Czarniawska-Joerges, 2006).
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- Testing regarding your system in terms of SDLC
Discuss how your organization (Costco Wholesale) accomplished their testing approach
Costco wholesale uses different strategies for solving conflicts that arise within the body. The company addresses dispute through enforcement of the Costco’s code of ethics. The company provides a Vendor code of conduct that ensures all the members of the company follow the instructions. The code of ethics addresses all individual differences that arise within and outside the company (Gregory, 2011). The adoption of these codes of conduct enables the systems management to accomplish their testing approach. The company operates with workers who can maintain their codes of conduct as well as obeying their rules and relation. Therefore, the codes of conduct are used as materials for testing the performance of the workers.
- Implementation and Maintenance regarding your system in terms of SDLC
Discuss implementation of the system, impact mitigation of conflicts and problems.
According to the SLDC requirements, Costco whole uses different personnel to accomplish its mission (Boyde, 2015). The company ensures that the design and development of the system provides stipulations and requirements of the project with less supervisory activities. The AIX Administrator of Costco provides planned and deliberate planning of the whole business environment.
Discuss the maintenance of the system
In regard with SDLC, Costco’s data analyst provides maintenance of the system by representing the concern of the company through the truthfulness of Costco’s information. The information provided helps the administration undertake measures that facilitate the development of the whole system.
- Data Management - Data-back-up/Disaster Recover regarding your system.
According to the SDLC, data-back-up involves restoring the already used data for another use. The information system used by Costco Wholesale can copy and restore computer data for future references. The system facilitates recovery of already lost information. The administration assigns different offices for data storage within the organization. The data is used in solving problems encountered in future (Boyde, 2015).
- Impact of Implementation
Discuss how application system changed aspects to an organization (Costco Wholesale)
Application system contributed to the proper coordination of projects integration solutions as well as working conditions that facilitate the integration of teams in the organization. The company also adopted proper identification and access to appropriate management technologies and practices (Czarniawska-Joerges, 2006). The system increased the rate of data transmission within and outside the organization. The methods of delivering services to the customers became more developed than in any other time (Bagad, 2009).
- Administrative procedures - human and process changes
The SDLC claims that a system should contain a hierarchical arrangement of the administration processes. The administrative process of Costco starts from the Chief Executive Officer to the lower level of government i.e. heads of departments. The company adopts different changes to the leadership style. In addition, the management process is said to be dynamic. The procedures adopted tend to vary with the situation in the company (Langer, 2012).
- The Changes in organization policies.
The company adopted some changes in the policies that regulate its membership. The organization modified the procedures to accommodate three types of membership: Executive, Business and Gold Star members. The system contains a site for obtaining more information about the membership of the organization (Avison, 1997).
- Training requirements.
The SDLC models advocate for training of workers by the organization. Costco observes this requirement by providing vocational training to its employees. The training equips them with a skill that helps them improve their performance techniques in their work. The company also applies the testing technique in the assessment of the performance of its workers.