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Quality has become a crucial part of organization services and goods offered. Therefore, every company must ensure quality in a body is maintained, but quality has different attributes and characteristics of various perspectives. According to Clark (2009), there exist global metrics that are used to define and measure quality and these parameters referred to as standards. The examples of these international metrics for quality are ISO standards. ISO standards are utilized for the quality of products and services of a company to maintain good practice, and they are paramount in organizations that operate on the global market. With that said, the following report will identify and explain proper standards that should be used in a company to carry out its activities such as managing electronic records. These measures will be used to maintain the quality of services in the enterprise. In this regard, this essay will cover the following areas: the nature of the chosen business using the standards, the kind of measures that will be utilized by different companies, and various international standards used in an organization.
Overview of the Chosen Company
The company that will be used for the research is the Oracle Company. Primarily, the company specializes in developing and marketing database software and cloud engineering systems (Momen, 2012). Oracle is the second biggest software company with more than 420,000 customers and operating in more than 145 countries (Momen, 2012). Since it is a big company, Oracle has a huge workforce with more than 135,070 employees, and the majority of these employees are Indians (Momen, 2012). More so, as a software company dealing with data storage, it mainly deals with storing data for businesses all over the world, especially those businesses that use Oracle’s cloud systems. These cloud systems mainly cater for the vast amount of data that cannot be stored on the individual company’s servers. Such information includes the information about the company’s customers, its employees, and the company’s assets and liabilities. In addition, the cloud system is considered the secure way of store large masses of data (Momen 2012).
One of the type of records kept by Oracle is the use of nested tables. These nested tables are known as PL/SQL tables that contain two columns. One column stores a primary key while the other column stores character data, and are they are arranged in an ordered collection. After the subscribing to these cloud services company’s data had been stored on the central servers of the Oracle Corporation, these servers are located at different locations in the world to serve each customer efficiently. The primary Oracle server that stores most of the information is located in the Oracle’s headquarters in Redwood Shores, California, USA. Additionally, Oracles uses Universal Records Management that manages data items on a retention schedule, which regulates the lifecycle of the data being stored. This kind of focus on the record management software in document management tends to be the preservation of content for historical, archival purposes, and even legal reasons, performing the retention management systems. Oracle URM combines record and retention management into a single software system. Oracle’s databases do not have any archiving teams, as most of its services are carried out by the automated software. Therefore, the employee's primary work is to upgrade these databases and offer consulting services to the customers.
Standards Related to Archiving and Records Management
Three various suitable standard should be used in Managing Electronic Records (Smallwood, 2013). These measures are provided by different internal standard bodies such as British Standards Institute (BSI), ISO, ANSI, and NIST, Standards Council of Canada (SCC), and Standards Australia, but the commonly used body is ISO. The main benefit of these standards is that they provide quality assurance support, interoperability support, cost reduction, and maintaining international standards. With that said, the first most appropriate standard is ISO 30300 that, according to Smallwood (2013), deals with series of the systematic approach to the collection and management of records that are aligned with the organization’s objective and methods. This method maintains the quality and integrity of electronic files, as they are stored in agreement with the company’s targets and quality standards. This ISO is mainly applied in firms that carry out data storage facilities, especially regarding electronic files. Furthermore, it is important to keep records of their decision-making activities and maintain a documented trail of taken actions. The usage of these standards maintains a good practice that provides efficiency, assists in managing risk, and nurtures repeated business. In addition, when faced with legal litigations, the company is able to salvage information that can be used for its defense (Smallwood 2013). Lastly, ISO 30300 has reference points for the information management, the control of documents, and the establishment of requirements for policies and procedures, the definition of roles and responsibilities, the design and implementation of the MSR, the evaluation of performance, and the ways of their improvement (Smallwood, 2013).
The second suitable standard is ISO 30300: 2011. This standard is used in the information documentation as well as managing systems for records and fundamental definition of key terms. Additionally, it explains the justification, behind which Management System of Records (MSR) is created, the guiding principles for its implementation, and provides the vocabulary (Elkin, 2012). As a result, this standard maintains a management system that is designed in a way that it continuously improves performance while still addressing the purpose of all stakeholders. More so, the electronic record kept with this standard enables business efficiency, risk management, accountability, and business continuity. This action is made possible by the fact that this rule provides the tools that are used by the top management to implement an organized and correct method to the organization control in an environment that encourages healthy group practice. Another benefit of this standard is that it is designed in such a way that its assist an organization with shared activities to operate and improve efficiency in the management systems for records. These benefits are revealed by using defined roles and responsibilities, measurement and evaluation, systematic approach, and review improvement (Elkin, 2012).
ISO 30302:2011 is another suitable standard utilized in the creation of an MSR. This specification deals with the information documentation, Management Systems for Records requirement. Precisely, it specifies the most critical requirements necessary in developing a recording policy for an enterprise to implement systematic improvements (Franks, 2013). More so, this standard ensures that specified requirements are met by the management system for records so that it could support an organization in achieving its mandate, objectives, missions, strategies, and visions. Additionally, it addresses the creation and implementation of record policy and objectives and gives information on the dimension and observing of performance. On the other hand, this kind of standard can also be implemented in other Management System Standards (MSS) because it is especially useful in demonstrating compliance with the required documentation and all the required records in MSS. Therefore, ISO 30302:2011 mainly focuses on the requirements needed for the development and implementation of an MSR so that the process of developing the system could be efficient, took considerable time, and helped in the cost estimation.
The third most appropriate to use standard is ISO 10244:2010. Typically, this rule deals with the document management, business process base lining, and analysis. More precisely, it specifies the detailed information associated with the activities of the enterprise’s performance when the documentation of the existing work defines the level of information that should be gathered, methods of documenting the organization's requirements, and analyzing the organization processes. As a result, this standard reflects on two major trends in the records management. One tendency is represented by the rapid improvement of the amount of information that needs to organize both the inside and the outside structure of the organization. Furthermore, it provides gears for the company so that it could identify the relevant aspects of the organization’s processes and document them in a standardized way, thus permitting them to facilitate a well-detailed analysis and the identification of appropriate terminologies to improve the organization processes and procedures. Another tendency provided by the standard is the increased popularity and growing capabilities of the electronic document management systems (EDMSs), and it has gradually resulted to the following attributes that include providing unique identifiers for records. Second, it contains the right version of control and archive services. Third, it improves the recording time for the change and even revision and ensures that documents retention is done over the needed time. Four, it identifies the individual collecting, issuing, and modifying documents in the system. The last benefit of this standard, according to Asprey and Middleton (2003), is that it provides secure location and tracking down of the stored documents in an EDMSs. Therefore, making this kind of systems capable of supporting the benefits listed above, it prevents the stored records management issues that are related to the malfunctioning in the areas, from which this standard is deployed.
The fourth suitable standard in Management System of Records is ISO 22310:2006. This specification deals with information and documentation and provides guidelines for the standards drafters for stating records management requirement in standards. Thus, this specification is mainly used in the appropriate incorporation records and their requirements and it makes sure that the registers remain consistent, authoritative, and authentic. The primary objective of this standard is that it assists in the writing of documents and document managements in the right standard. Therefore, whether the records are new or revised, they ensure that the requirements meet the essential criteria of interoperability and consistency. Additionally, these guidelines used in the development of consistent record management should be precise and clear, they should ensure interoperability and make sure that there is an alignment between career management and administration system standards with the option of facilitating the combined application of the standards of a company that wishes to use them. More so, these guidelines should result in the development of the consistent record management requirements according to all ISO/IEC standards, together with the overall needs in the MSR. By applying this standard, the company ensures that the consistency, interoperability, and the right procedure are followed during the development of an efficient and effective management record system following the record management standards (Bobick & Berard, 2011).
ISO 23081–1:2006 is the fifth most suitable standard that can be used in an electronic file management system. Typically, it deals with information and documentation (Franks, 2013). It also deals with the record management process, metadata for record, and lastly, the principles of standards. With that said, this specification is mainly used to cover the principles that underlie and govern how record metadata should be organized. These laws apply in organizations that are held responsible for their management, files and their metadata, all processes that affect metadata, and any system, in which this metadata exists in completely. Furthermore, it sets a framework for creating, and even using record management metadata and the principles that guide them. However, it does not define a mandatory way, through which document management metadata is implemented since metadata differ in details in different organizations or particular jurisdiction requirements. However, it important in the fact that it accesses the central metadata about the existing requirements and makes sure that the two are of the same specification and jurisdiction areas. More so, it enables the management to deliver authentic, reliable, and usable records over given period that meets an organization needs. The implementation of ISO 23081–1:2006 supports organization and file management process by making sure that the registers used by any application or information system. The following are benefits expected as the result of using log management metadata. First, it protects records as evidence and ensures their accessibility and usability at any given time. Second, it facilitates the ability to comprehend records. Third, it supports and makes sure that there is an evidential value of documents. Fourth, it ensures that the authenticity, reliability, and the integrity of records. Finally, it supports and manages access, privacy, and rights as well as efficiency retrieval of files.
Internaational Standards Related to Records Management
Three different international standards should be implemented and they can even be recommended for use in an electronic management system. One of these international standards is international standard one, which is Standards Australia International, or ISO 154 89. This international standard provides a perfect way of creating record policies, systems, procedures, and process that support the management of documents in all formats (Sinha, Sunder, Bendale, Mantri, & Dande, 2013). Additionally, this specification is widely used in Australia, New Zealand, and even internationally by private and public organizations. Such a popularity is brought about by the fact that this standard provides a clear yardstick that enterprises can use to assess their record management systems and practices. More so, it designed in such a way that it supports an organization to create, capture, and even manage full and accurate records that meet the organization’s needs and legal requirements and satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations. This international standard is divided into two parts. Part 1 is the actual standard that provides a structure for record management. Part 2 is the technical report that gives the practical guidance to assist an organization in implementing the framework set out in Part 1.
The second international standard that should be applied or recommended to Electronic Record Management system is ISO 15489. According to Smallwood (2013), this specification is an international standard for record management that has derived from Australian Standard AS 4390: 1996. This standard is used in the administration of files of all kinds and it provides an outline for an organization establishing a career management or even revising the already existing policies and procedures. Furthermore, it describes the characteristics of electronic documents and administration systems, but it does not show the set of requirements that an electronic records management system has for them to be developed and implemented. Additionally, it is described at the highest level of the best practice with a framework for file management. Moreover, this standard provides the guidelines that ensure effective regulation for the design and its implementation of the stated framework. Nevertheless, it provides specific details on developing the record managing system’s policies, the responsibility statements, and even suggestions of the processes for developing record keeping systems. It also gives advice on developing a document-processing unit that controls activities such as disposal authorities, security, and access arrangements. More so, it discusses how a given organization can use the following tools of capturing, registering, classifying, and even storing gears to manage their records. Lastly, it also provides assistance with setting up the system, monitoring training, and even auditing projects that ensure that the system keeps electronic records in a system way.
BIP 0008-1:2008 is the third international standard that should be implemented in a Management Record System and it can even be recommended if it is not already used to improve the system in an organization. This international standard has been widely used by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and British Standard Institute (BSI). Thus, this means the standard is widely used in the world. Primary, it deals with Evidential Weight and Legal Admissibility of Information Stored Electronically. On its implementation, the standard focuses on the authenticity and the availability of records at any particular time and precise relevance on where the information is stored as an organization may require evidence in the legal proceeding and even other organizational disputes. More so, it establishes the authenticity and integrity of electronic information, and it is important because digital data continues to be uncertain, especially about the legal acceptability of electronic records. Therefore, BIP 0008-1:2008 provides the following solution to legal issues. First, it improves the reliability of stored data. Second, it maximizes the evidential weight that the court or even other organizational bodies may assign to the information. Third, it provides inter-corporation trust in inter-company training. Fourth, it reassures regulators and auditors that the organization’s information is the right one and it has maintained its integrity. Furthermore, this standard provides responsible data processing, data handling, and efficient data storage; it provides quality assessors and regulatory body. Thus, this specification is global and it operates over 147 countries. Moreover, it is the number one international standard in the UK and the USA. Hence, it is very efficient and it maintains the legal guidance for electronic creation, storage, and retrieval mechanism. Additionally, this standard has core principles, among which is authenticity that involves the process followed in system planning, implementation, and the procedure, under which the system operates. Storage and access method is the second principle that includes scanning, indexing, system administration, retrieval, archiving and lastly, it is followed up by an off-site storage training. The third principle used is demonstrability of adherence, which is a structured audited process, resulting from certificate of conformity that shows demonstrability of adherence (Asprey & Middleton 2003).
After using the above-stated standard, the following are the outcomes in the development of an electronic records management system. First, the system will maintain the quality and integrity of electronic files as they are stored by the company’s objectives and quality standards. The second outcome is that the record management system using this specification will maintain a management system designed in such a way that it continuously improves performance in the organization. The third expected outcome is that the system will ensure that specified requirements are met by the electronic management system for records so that it could support an organization in achieving its mandate, objectives, missions, and strategies. Fourth, the developed electronic document management system will ensure that the documents and file commands are of the right standard, and the requirements meet the essential criteria of consistency and interoperability. The fifth outcome is that the record management system will enable the management to deliver authentic, reliable, and usable records over a given period that meets an organization needs.
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